Definition of Terms


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

Abrader : A stone tool used wear away unwanted portions of copper artifacts or to smooth rough surfaces. Abraders accomplished the work of modern files, rasps, sandpaper and emery wheels.  

Abrading : The rasping, filing or sanding a rough surface or wearing away unwanted portions of copper with a rough stone abrader.  

Acute angle : An angle that measures less than 90 degrees.

Adz : An adze is a hafted ax, often with a curved blade. Its most distinguishing characteristic is its hafting at a right angle to the handle. An adze has a cutting edge at one end and another cutting edge, a pick or a hammer at the other end. Among the old copper pieces, the "spud" is a good example of an adze. There are several others types. A gouge mounted at right angle to a handle is one form of an adze.

Algaecide : As copper oxidizes it produces copper salts that saturate and preserve associated organic material from destruction by algae, bacteria, and fungus.   Algaecide is a chemical agent, which kills algae.

Amorphous : An indistinct or somewhat ambiguous form or shape of copper.

Annealing : Copper is hardened and made brittle in the pounding. Annealing is the process of heating copper and cooling it slowly to soften the metal and reduce the hardness and brittleness.

Extemporaneous Tools are temporary tools crafted while creating base ingots, or an extemporaneous modification to a base ingot or raw copper to create a temporary tool. Most anomalous tools were recycled. Extemporaneous

Arc : An arc is a part of a circle.

Axe : An ax is a grooved cutting tool attached to a handle. The sharp cutting edge of the ax blade or bit is hafted parallel to its handle. The primary purpose of the ax is to chop wood (across the grain) and split wood (with the grain). Domestically, axes were traditionally used for felling trees, chopping, splitting and hewing wood. In splitting tasks the ax becomes a wedge with a handle. Axes often possess a hammer poll on the top side opposite the blade. Occasionally axes show a pick on the top side and a few are double bitted. The ax is one of the most versatile of tools.

Bactericide : As copper oxidizes it produces copper salts that saturate and preserve associated organic material from destruction by bacteria, algae and fungus. Bactericide is a chemical agent that kills bacteria.  

Barbs : (1) A sharp point projecting in reverse direction to the main point of a weapon or tool, as on an arrow, harpoon or fishhook. (2) The barbs on a Barbed Point were created on its tang, perpendicular to the tang and used for hefting. (3) The teeth an a saw or the teeth on the tang of a Serrated Point.  

Barb Spear Point : A projectile point which takes its name from two barbs, one on either side of the tang near the blade butt, perpendicular to the tang and used as hefting aids. Barbed Points usually show a diamond shaped blade with a median ridge.

Barb Appendages : Barbs are a pair of appendages found singularly on the right and left sides of the tang. Barbs are usually sharper and more pronounced than tang teeth appendages. The spear point or knife with barbs is typed the Barbed Spear Point.

Bar Ingots : A modified copper ingot roughly quadrangular in shape and in cross-section, with two or more parallel horizontal lines and two or more plano-like surfaces, rectangular-like or occasionally oval-like in outline. They range in size from less than .1 oz. to at least 13 pounds.

Barrel-hoop iron : American and European iron such as barrel hoops, which Indians drafted into use to produce projectile points and other iron implements and ornaments

Base Ingots : The third stage of modified copper, following impure copper and scoured copper. Rough protrusions and sharp edges are folded in and pounded down to form smooth compacted ingots irregular in size and shape, but slightly quadrilateral in outline and cross-section.

Bevel : The angle or inclination of a line or surface that meets another at any angle but 90°. Three examples of bevels are: median ridges, some cutting edges found on knives and projectile points and reshaped (beveled) broken points.

Bilateral : Having two sides; marked by bilateral symmetry. Projectile points characteristically have bilateral cutting edges. Knives may have bilateral or unilateral cutting edges.

Bifacial Median Ridge: Blades with a median ridge on both the obverse and reverse sides of the blade. Blades with bifacial median ridges are diamond shaped in cross sectional view.

Bit : The sharp part of a tool or weapon, such as the cutting edge of an ax or chisel.

Blade : The piercing and cutting part of a projectile point or knife; the bit of an ax, adz, chisel, etc.

Blade Area : The surface area of the blade includes the blade contour, excluding the tang. The blade's surface area characteristics, convex, flat, a median ridge, etc. produce the cross sectional view of the blade.

Blade Base : The bottom of the projectile point blade, from left shoulder angle tip to the right shoulder angle tip.

Blade Edge : The cutting edge of a projectile point or knife blade.

Blade Face (Area): The surface area of the blade includes the blade contour, excluding the tang. The blade's surface area characteristics, convex, flat, a median ridge, etc. produce the cross sectional view of

Blade point : The tip of a projectile point or knife blade used for piercing. Another name for blade tip.

Blade Shoulders : A line between the blade edge and the tang shaft.

Blade Tip: The point end of a projectile point or knife blade used for piercing. Another name for blade point.

Blanks : A blank is a modified copper stage advanced beyond a preform and the final stage before completion. It is associated with one specific item, and in appearance it suggests the 'genre' the craftsman intended it to become.

Bottom : For purposes of clarification bottom is distinguished from top in copper artifact nomenclature. The projectile point bottom, for example, is always down, joining the tang top. The bottom of axes, adzes, chisels and many other tools and weapons is its bit. The bottom is called a base in describing blades (Blade-base) and tangs (tang-base).

Base : (a) The end or bottom of a projectile point blade, the distal point from the blade point; that part of a projectile point to which the tang is attached. (b)The bottom of the tang, the point most distant from the blade.

Cache : A group of artifacts found together in a small area, stored or hidden by their prehistoric or historic owners.

Cache Mates : A group of artifacts found in a cache.   

Calcium : A silvery, moderately hard metallic element that constitutes approximately 3 percent of the earth's crust and is a basic component of most animals and plants. It occurs naturally in limestone, gypsum, and fluorite, and its compounds are used to make plaster, quicklime, Portland cement, and metallurgic and electronic materials. Calcium is found as sediment in the bottom of teakettles and occasionally makes up a part of copper artifacts' patina.

Celt : The celt is an ax without a groove. Like axes, celts are hafted with the handle parallel to the bit of the ax/celt. Some celts have chisel characteristics and celts often have hammer or pick characteristics on the top side opposite the bit.

Chalcolithic : A people who still worked stone tools while producing copper objects. All pre-contact copper working American Indians were chalcolethic, but the term is an Old World one.

Characteristics : An object's characteristics are its unique morphological blend of parts, segments and traits. Characteristic may describe the whole artifact, or a component elected for study. Unique characteristics distinguish a particular artifact, and others with near-identical blends, as cultural mates. All characteristics have names and descriptions. They are even more closely associated to a specific culture, than are traits. Characteristics, type, and culture are closely related.

Chisel : A chisel is a tool with a sharp beveled edge or bit used to cut and shape stone, wood, metal and other materials. Chisels are nearly always created with the cutting bit on the bottom and a blunt pounding surface at the poll-end. The primary purpose of the chisel is to cut with the bit end, hammered from the poll-end. Some chisels are sharpened on one side only while others are created with a bevel bit obverse and reverse. Any chisel, but especially those with two edges, can be used as, or confused with, wedges. A chisel could become an adze, ax or spud, depending on how the handle is mounted to the tool.

Chisel Copper: Strips of raw copper mined by chiseling (gouging) strips of copper from large native blocks too large to conveniently remove in one piece. The miner held the chisel in one hand and a hammer in the other. Chips average 1/6 of an inch to 1/4 inch in thickness, 1/2 inch to 1 inch in width and 2 inches to 8 inches in length.

Chunk Money : A name by which some collectors identify modified pieces of copper.

Class : Two or more types sharing morphological traits. Examples are the socketed class, the lanceolate class, the symmetrical class, the beveled class, the tang class, etc. Classes can be formed around any distinguishing characteristic and temporary classes are useful for descriptive and comparative studies in typology research.

Class : A taxonomic group of copper artifacts having certain attributes or traits in common. Copper typology contains 7 taxonomic classes: kingdoms, families, kinds, divisions, genres, types and varieties.

Classify : Classify is to distinguish one taxonomic class from another based on sets of characteristics; to identify like kind determined by similar features and qualities; to organize copper artifacts into a system that indicates natural relationships and provides for diagnosis.

Cold Pounding : Cold pounding is percussion shaping of copper objects without the aid of heat or annealing. Cold pounding shaped the object and hardened the copper. When the copper became too hard or brittle to work it was annealed to obtain malleability.

Components : Components consist of the parts, segments and traits of copper artifacts.

Concave : Curved like the inner surface of a sphere.

Cone: An angle formed by two legs and closed with an arc. A projectile point with a flat obverse side and a median ridge on the reverse side is seen as a conical-like in cross sectional view.  

Conical Points : Copper is coiled or pounded onto conical shapes with a piercing point on the top and an open socket on the bottom.

Contiguous : Connecting without a break. Sharing an edge or boundary, touching.

Convex : Having a surface or boundary that curves or bulges outward, as the exterior of a sphere.

Copper boulders: a. Natural native copper formed in boulder formations, from 100 to many hundreds of tons; b. Many pure copper boulders have been found with the mark of man. It is believed that early miners chiseled off copper masses' extensions, removing every part possible or practical .

Copper Oxides : A compound of copper and oxygen formed during the oxidation of copper. Copper oxides inhibit bacteria and acts as a preservative for organic materials.

Copper Salts : A crystalline sulfate associated with oxidizing copper which acts as a germicide preserving organic material associated with copper artifacts.

Copper Sulfate : A poisonous blue crystalline copper salt, used in agriculture, textile dyeing, leather treatment, electroplating, and the manufacture of germicides.

Copper Taxonomy : Copper taxonomy consists of, typology, the art or science of assigning a system of class names to ordered related groups of copper artifacts in a taxonomic classification, and b. nomenclature, the science of studying and assigning part, segment, trait, and characteristic names to individual components of whole artifacts. Together with typology, it makes up the copper taxonomy.

Corrosion : When moisture and oxygen are associated with copper in certain environments, electrons are lost from the copper and combine with oxygen to form a compound or oxide. This oxide coating as well as the visible erosion is called corrosion. Corrosion may form a protective coating described as patina.

Creation Marks : Creation marks are the marks of man, still visible on copper artifacts and divided into three categories, (a) treatment marks (b) Metallurgical behavior marks, and (c) tool marks.

Crescent : A shape having concave and convex edges terminating in points (horns). A type of tang-butt appendage used for hefting a wooden shaft or handle and for abutting a rivet.

Cross sectional view : A real or hypothetical view of a blade seen after cutting the object into two pieces at right angle to the vertical direction of the blade.

Crystalline : Being, relating to, or composed of crystal or crystals. A characteristic of copper salts and copper sulfate found in or associated with corrosion, copper oxides and patina found coating copper artifacts.

Culture : Everything that identifies a people as who they are/were, especially their common beliefs, custom, practices, and social behavior in a specific, however changing, location, for a specific period of time; sometimes referred to as a horizon or complex. The culture may be named and known or unidentified, isolated or influenced and influencing others. Characteristics of their culture dictated decisions that made their crafted items different from other cultural artifacts.

Cultural Tags : There are many ways to create copper objects that perform identical tasks. The systematic choices which craftsmen made in the production of objects are cultural choices. Cultural choices result in component variation called cultural tags.

Cusp :   In copper taxonomy a cusp is defined as the point or angle formed when a straight line intersects a curved line, convex or concave; the point where two curved lines intersect.

Cutting Edge : The blade edge of projectile points and knives; the cutting edge of bits found on tools and weapons. Some cutting edges are beveled, others are not.

Damaged Objects : Many copper objects were damaged or fragmented in war, accident and use. Others were partially used up in the performance of prolonged normal tasks. Another group of copper objects were subjected to extended or repeated exposure to air and moisture. Exposure caused a significant loss of copper electrons and sometimes destroyed identifying characteristics. A final group of copper artifacts were damaged by modern farm and construction equipment. Damaged objects are often confused with the various stages of modification.

Decagon: A polygon with ten angles and ten sides.

Diagnostic : The ability to gather unknown information from known facts; the ability to extrapolate temporal and cultural information from a taxonomic classification of copper artifacts with assigned nomenclature.

Distal : Anatomically located far from a point of reference, point of origin or point of attachment. Situated farthest from the blade point or furthermost from the point of reference on a copper object.

Divisions : Kinds are divided into the 4th copper taxonomic class, divisions. Weapon kind, for example, can be divided into the divisions: projectile points, knives, axes, etc. The divisions of tool kind are: hammers, axes, adzes, chisels, wedges, saws, etc. Jewelry kind's divisions are: necklaces, ear spools, bracelets, rings, hair cylinders, breastplates, and many others. Nearly all kinds have their subclass of divisions, and divisions in turn are made up of the taxonomic class, genres.

Dodecagon : A dodecagon is a polygon with 12 sides.

Ears : Ears are appendages to the tang shaft, near the tang butt and used as hafting aids. Ears, often indistinct, may appear semicircular-like or triangular-like. Ears make the tang wider near the tang butt.

Enclosure : Enclosure is one of two techniques of mounting copper projectile points and knife blades to shafts or handles. Enclosure is the socketed method of enclosing a part of the shaft or handle in copper. The second method is insertion.

Erosion : The loss of copper through oxidation.

Erosion Patterns : The scars left on the surface of copper artifacts by escaping electrons are called erosion patterns.    

Erosion scars : Erosion scars are the blemishes and disfigurements left on the surfaces of artifacts during centuries and even millenniums of oxidation.   

Excurvate : To cause to bend into an outward curve; curved or convex.

Extemporaneous Tools are temporary tools crafted while creating base ingots, or an extemporaneous modification to a base ingot or raw copper to create a temporary tool. Most extemporaneous tools were recycled.

Family : Family is a subclass of kingdom. The copper family, the 2nd level of copper taxonomic classes, is from the kingdom of minerals. Families are made up of divisions.

Fissures : If copper is pounded too long before annealing it hardens and fissures.

Fissure Lines : Fissures lines are tiny cracks caused by pounding copper too long between annealing.

Float Copper : Copper in various sixes was ripped from trap rock in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and carried away by the glaciers. Pieces of copper, pushed as far south as northern Illinois, is called float copper.

Fold Marks : Another name for lap lines which are the marks created in the folding of copper over onto itself in the pounding of copper; the fuse or weld marks created in pounding two or more pieces of copper into one mass of copper.

Fungicide : As copper oxidizes it produces copper salts that saturate and preserve associated organic material from destruction by fungus, bacteria and algae. Fungicide is a chemical agent that kills fungus.

Fuse Marks : The marks caused in fusing or welding over lapping pieces of copper. Another name for lap marks and weld marks.

Fusion : In working copper, cold pounding and annealing, folds or laps of copper are fused or welded together to form a final solid product. Fusion lines are referred to as lap lines or fold marks.

Gad : A type of chisel used for drilling or to brake up ore and remove impurities from native copper. A gad has a round-like shaft. The poll end is prepared for hammer blows while the working end, the chisel end, cuts into rock. A modern example is a star drill, a hand held bit or chisel which is turned with the left hand after each strike to the poll with a hammer. It is used to drill holes in stone or cement.  

Genres : The sub-taxonomic class of division. The division, projectile points, for example, consist of five genres: spear points, arrowheads, atlatl points, harpoons, and darts. Genres are sub-classified into types.

Geofact : An object produced by nature which resembles an artifact and may be confused with objects crafted by the hand of man. Copper geofacts are usually produced by glacial activity. Glaciers can mimic man made shapes, pound marks, lap lines and even worm tracks.

Germicide : An agent that kills germs; bacteria, algae and fungus. Copper artifacts oxidize and produce copper Salts that saturate and preserve associate organic material.   

Gouge : A gouge is a chisel with a rounded trough-like blade, often curved from top to bottom, concave on the obverse and convex on the reverse. It is used in scooping or digging, often with wood, but sometimes with soil or other materials. If the gouge is hafted with the blade perpendicular the handle, as is often the case, it is a type of adze. Some hoes are gouges. Occasionally a shaft may be mounted as an extension of the elongated tool, as are spuds. If the gouge was created to be unhafted and hammered from the top, it is a chisel.

Haft : The handle or shaft of a tool or weapon; the method of fastening the tool or weapon to its shaft or handle.

Hafting: The fastening of a tool or weapon to a handle or shaft.

Heels : An arc-like appendage to the tang butt, giving the tang butt a rounded or convex butt appearance but serves no practical function.

Heptagon : A polygon having seven sides.

Hexagon : A polygon having six sides.

Historical Markers : Historical markers are natural marks found on copper artifacts. The marks included in this study require time to develop and mature. There are three such groups of marks under the heading of oxidation. They are a. patination, b. stages of oxidation and c. erosion patterns.

Horns : Horns are the distal points of a crescent shaped tang-butt. Horns are hafting aids found on the tang-shaft sides, right and left, contiguous to the tang butt and perpendicular to the tang-shaft. Horns are longer than ears and make the tang wider, up to three times its normal width at the tang point of attachment. Crescent- shaped tang-butts were often created to abut or support rivets in shafts or handles.

Iconography : The marking of copper objects and other artifacts with meaningful cultural patterns and designs.

Impurities: a. Matrix attached to mined copper and rock copper had flowed around; and b. mineralized inclusion within native copper such as silver.

Impure Copper : The second stage of modified copper, is mined copper partially scoured and retaining matrix impurities.

Inclusive Waste : Occasionally craftsmen found inclusions in their work and pounded it out as waste. If mineralized inclusion could not be pounded out the whole piece became waste. It is not known how efficiently waste copper was purified and reused.  

Incurvate : To cause to bend into an inward curve. Curved inward.

Insertion : Insertion is one of two methods of mounting copper projectile points and knife blades to shafts and handles. This is the technique of inserting or sandwiching a tang into a shaft or handle. In the absence of a tang the blade butt is inserted or sandwiched in wood or some other material. The other method of hafting is called enclosure.

Inverse Worm Tracks : Inversed worm tracks are tiny fissures, which behave like worm tracks in the way they follow the craftsmen's hammering. One may need a magnifying glass to discriminate between fissures and raised worm tracks. Because they are fissures, they do not reflect light and appear as dark or even black worm tracks.

Isosceles Trapezoid: When the legs of a trapezoid are of equal length, the figure is called an isosceles trapezoid.

Joint : The division line, often imaginary, between two parts of a copper artifact reserved for separate names in a copper artifact nomenclature and taxonomy.

Kettle-copper : Copper kettles   and other European copper goods used by Indians as a substitute for native copper in making copper implements and ornaments.

Kind : The family of copper relics is subdivided by the 3rd copper taxonomic class, kind, and kind is determined by use. The five kinds of copper artifacts are: (1) tools, (2) weapons, (3) jewelry and ornamental objects, (4) spiritual, ceremonial and musical objects, and (5) economic objects such as ingots, blanks, raw copper pieces of various sizes and other copper objects manufactured for trade. Kinds are subdivided into divisions.

Kingdom :   One of the three main divisions (animal, vegetable, and mineral) into which natural organisms and objects are classified. In Copper taxonomy kingdoms consist of families, one of which is the family of copper.

Kite : A polygon with two sets of contiguous lines of equal length. The shape is most often that of a diamond or a classical flying kite.

Lap Lines : Lap lines are the marks created in the folding of copper over onto itself in the pounding of copper; the fuse marks or weld marks created in pounding two or more pieces of copper into one mass of copper. Lap lines are sometimes called fold marks.

Lapping : The folding in (lapping in) copper extremities to pound down and fuse together.

Lenticular : Shaped like a biconvex lens. Blades that are concave on both the obverse and reverse sides are lenticular.

Limacine : Pointed at both ends; slug like in shape. The Limacine point has a pointed tang, similar in shape and size to its blade. Some Lancelot Points are limacine in shape.

Mandrel : A tapered shaft or arbor around which copper is forged or shaped.

Mates : Copper artifacts in a cache are cache mates. Copper artifacts with the same set of characteristics are type mates. Like types from the same culture are cultural mates.

Mattock: An implement or tool with a flat blade and used for loosening soil. It is set at a right angle to its handle.

Median Ridge : A median ridge is a long spine which runs the length of the reverse side of a blade where two sloping sides meet in a crest; dividing the blade into two long, narrow, equal and symmetrical planes. Median ridges are designed to add strength, stability and penetrating power to soft flat-like copper blades. Rarely, median ridges are found on both the obverse and reverse sides of blades.

Metallurgy : The science that deals with procedures used in extracting metals from their ores, purifying and alloying metals, and creating useful objects from metals. The stages of metallurgy in history are: (1) cold pounding and annealing, (2) casting, (3) alloying and (4) smelting iron and manufacturing steel.

Mini Ingots : Modified pieces of copper similar to base ingots but differ in size and sometimes in shape. By definition they weigh less than two tenths of an ounce. Mini ingots can appear as nymph-like miniatures of the much larger base ingots, bar ingots, preforms and blanks. Some may be votives.

Modified Copper : Copper showing the mark of man, but uncompleted. Modified pieces include base ingots, mini ingots, bar ingots, preforms, blanks , and others.

Morphic : Having a specified shape or collection of specified parts traits.

Morphology : The form and structure of an object or one of its parts.

Native Copper : Copper that occurs naturally in elemental form. The most significant source of native copper in North America is found in northern Michigan, the Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royal. This copper is unusually pure, 99.9%.  

Nibs : Nibs appear as triangular-like appendages on the otherwise horizontal tang butt. It is conjectured that nibs were made to be bent up 90 degrees and imbedded in a wooden shaft for added hafting security.

Nonagon : A polygon with nine sides.

Nomenclature : Nomenclature is the science or art of seeing, naming, and studying copper artifacts in their components: parts, segments and traits. It is the grouping of segments into a unique set of characteristics, morphologically diagnostic of a culture.

Obtuse : The term for an angle greater than ninety degrees.

Oxides : a compound of copper (metal) and oxygen formed during oxidation. Moisture stimulates oxidation and the formation of oxides.

Oxide Layers : Layers of oxides laid down upon a copper surface during oxidation and provide a protective coat. Oxide layers may cover and hide erosion scars, lap lines, pound marks and stress marks. Oxide layers are described as a form of corrosion and as a form of patina.

Oxidation Scars : Oxidation scars are the blemishes and disfigurements left on the surfaces of artifacts during centuries and even millenniums of oxidation.

Oxidation Stages : Oxidation occurs in degrees over time, progressing from microscopic stages to completed disintegration.

Octagon : A polygon with eight sides and eight angles.

Oxidation : oxidation is defined as: a. The chemical process of losing copper electrons to oxygen, and b. the formation of an oxide compound of copper sulfate, oxygen and other contaminates from the environment to form a patinas coating.   

Parallelogram : A four-sided plane figure with opposite sides parallel; a cross sectional view of the Ace of Spades type projectile point.

Parts : All Copper artifacts have two or three major parts. Most projectiles points and knives have two major parts, blades and tangs. Axes have bits and polls. Parts are composed of segments and traits. All parts have names and descriptions.

Patina : A thin greenish (and other colors) layer, usually a basic copper sulfate, that forms on copper or copper alloys, such as bronze, as a result of corrosion and/or an encrusting of other elements.

Patinated : Having a coating, covering, or sheen; patented. Used especially to describe the corrosive green layer that forms on copper and its alloys, and/or an encrusting of other elements.

Patination : The state of having or being covered with a patina; the process of forming or encrusting with a patina.  

Patination Categories : Patina collects on copper artifacts. Categories of patination occur in stages (dust to thick, dense, tight coatings) related to environment and time.       

Patinous : A condition of having a coating or encrustation of patina; patinated.

Pentagon : A polygon having five sides and five interior angles.

Pins : A copper rivet having a head on one end, inserted through holes in the tangs of copper projectile points or knives. The tang pin-holes are aligned with shaft or handle pin-holes, the pins are inserted through both the copper and the wood and hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head. Pins secure the copper blade to its handle or shaft. Another name for rivets.

Pin-Holes : Holes prepared in the tangs of knives and projectile points as well as in their wooden handles and shafts. Pin-holes receive rivets which hold knives and projectile points to their handles or shafts.

Plano : The description of an object that is flat or plane on one or more sides.

Plano-convex : The description of an object that is flat or plane on one side and convex on the other side.

Point: A generic name for projectile points

Point Tip : Another name for blade tip or blade point.

Poll-end : The blunt or pounding end of tools like hammers or axes. The end prepared for hammer blows on chisels, gads, wedged, etc.

Polygon : A closed plane figure bounded by three or more line segments.

Preforms: The next to the last stage of modified copper. Preforms were created from base ingots or bar ingots and are a step toward creating a completed implement or ornament. Initial shaping occurred and a menu of objects was associated with each preform

Punctate: The process of decorating or recording copper artifacts with punch dots and or dashes, often arranged in asymmetric rows or designs.

Quadra : Pertaining to being square or four sided.

Quadra-concave : A four-sided figure with the sides being concave.

Quadra-concave-convex : A four-sided figure with one or more concave sides and one or more convex sides.

Quadra-convex : A four-sided figure with the sides being convex.

Quadrangular : A polygon with four sides and four angles four-sided.

Quadrilateral: Polygons having two parallel sides.

Residuum : Matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process, such as evaporation, combustion, distillation, or filtration. Residuum consists of residue from air, water and soil, and may include organic materials. These combinations have collected on copper artifacts and harden by copper salts; residuum patination.

Residuum Patination : Residuum patination is formed of residue from air, moisture and soil. It may also include organic material. Over time electrons escaping from the copper artifact harden the patina.

Right Side : For purposes of clarity in copper artifact nomenclature, right and left are terms reserved for the narrow sides of copper artifacts, the cutting edges of a projectile points, for example. Right and left are distinguished from the wide flat sides that are labeled obverse and reverse.

Rivet : A copper pin having a head on one end, inserted through holes in the tangs of copper projectile points or knives. The tang holes were aligned with shaft or handle holes, the rivets were inserted through both the copper and the wood and hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head. Rivets secure the copper blade to its handle or shaft. Another name for pins.

Rivet Holes : Holes prepared in tangs of knives and projectile points as well as in their wooden handles and shafts. Rivet holes receive rivets that hold knives and projectile points to their handles or shafts. Another name for pin holes.

Scoured Copper : Mined copper, scoured of attached rock and impurities which copper has flowed around. Pounding and annealing leaves some marks of man. Scoured copper is pounded into base ingots.

Segments : Segments are areas of parts. Blades and tangs are both parts, each composed of segments. Blade segments include the blade's surface, cutting edge, point, and base. Some segments, a median ridge, for example, double as traits. Segments are defined by traits and all segments have names and descriptions. Segments are cultural decisions, cultural tags.

Serration : A series or set of notches found on some knife and projectile point tangs; the notches between teeth.

Shaft : The shank, stem or body upon which projectile points are mounted, usually called a tang. The tang shaft is that part of the tang found between the blade butt and the tang butt.

Shank : A shank is the main body of a tang found between the tang blade joint and the tang butt; another name for tang.

Sheet Copper : Ingots or nuggets were pounded and rolled between two stones to form a desired gauge. Sheets were created in various thicknesses, and ranged from less than an inch wide to more than a foot across.

Shoulder : The blade bottom, a part of the blade butt, a line between the blade edge and the blade tang.

Shoulder Angle : The angle formed where the blade edge intersects the blade bottom. Some blade edge and blade butt intersections are angles while others are cusps.

Sides : Most copper artifacts are perceived with six sides. For purposes of clarification copper artifact nomenclature provides an exclusive definition for each. See top, bottom, right, left, obverse and reverse.

Sockets : Sockets are hollow open cavities found on the tangs of knives, projectile points; spuds, etc.; receptacles for wooden shafts.

Socketed : Tools and weapons that use the socketed method of hafting handles and shafts.

Spud : A socketed tool, usually one of the heavier copper tools with an uncertain utility. The socket runs the length of the tool with a bit on the bottom. The distal point from the bit is without a poll. If its shaft is mounted parallel to the socket the spud could be used as a modern ice spud. With a handle mounted parallel to the bit the spud can function as an ax. Finally it is thought that the handle was sometimes mounted perpendicular to the socket and used as an adz, a hoe or a gouge.   

Steps : A step bridges two adjacent planes, the upper blade surface and a lower socket surface. The wooden shaft abuts the step, which prevents the blade from sliding into and splitting the shaft upon impact. Steps are found on several varieties of socketed types.

Stress Marks : Stress marks are outward signs of loss in strength: lines of weakness, reduced tensile strength and reduced internal integrity of the metal drawn out too far in pounding or drawn out without sufficient annealing.

Striate: Scratches formed in parallel lines by grinding, filing, buffing and polishing in finishing and perfecting an object.  

Striation : A number of parallel lines or scratches (striae) found on worked   copper, caused by grinding, filing, buffing and polishing in finishing and perfecting an object.  

Symmetry : Exact correspondence of form and constituent configuration on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis. Projectile points are symmetrical, right and left. They are sometimes symmetrical obverse and reverse.

Tail : Tail or Rat Tail is a name assigned to on variety of projectile point or knife tang; a long, round like tang or trapezoid like tang.

Tang : A theoretically rectangular shaft protruding from the middle of the blade butt and used to haft a shaft or handle. That part of a knife used to haft a handle. Tangs are found in many deviations from the theoretical rectangle.

Tang Appendages : Hafting additions found on tangs.

Tang-Base : The bottom of the tang, the contour or shape of the tang shaft between the tang's distal points, left and right, on the horizontal base of the vertical tang.

Tang-Blade Joint : The line, often imaginary, where the tang joins the blade at the blade butt.

Tang-Butt : the contour or shape of the tang shaft between the tang's distal points, left and right, on the horizontal end of the vertical tang.

Tang Ears : Ears are appendages to the tang shaft, near the tang butt and used as hafting aids. Ears, often indistinct, may appear semicircular-like or triangular-like. Ears make the tang wider near the tang butt.

Tang-Shaft : The tang, without appendages, without the tang butt and found between the blade butt and the tang butt.

Tang-Shoulder Joint : The line, which joins the tang shaft to the blade shoulder.

Tang Shoulder Angle : The angle formed where the tang-top meets the blade-shoulder.

Trapezoid : A quadrilateral having two parallel sides.

Taxonomic Classes : Taxonomic classes are a. (1) Kingdom, (2) family, (3) kinds, (4) divisions, (5) groups, (6) types and (7) varieties, each class is a subclass of the one above it and b. the segment names of a copper object's parts.

Taxonomy: Taxonomy consists of, typology, the art or science of assigning a system of class names to ordered related groups of copper artifacts in a taxonomic classification, and b. nomenclature, the science of studying and assigning part, segment, trait, and characteristic names to individual components of whole artifacts. Together with typology, it makes up the copper taxonomy.

Teeth: Barbs or sharp projections on copper saws, projectile points and knife tangs. Teeth are the projections between serrations on serrated copper. The teeth on tangs are thought to aid in hafting.

Temporal : Relating to time or a time period in history.

Tool Marks : Creation marks left by tools in crafting copper objects.

Top : For purposes of clarification projectile points are pictured and described with the point-tip (top) up and the base (bottom) down. The top of axes, adzes, chisels and all other tools and weapons with bits, is the distal point from the bit, often a hammer end or the end made to give or receive hammer blows.

Trade Points : Trade points were manufactured by non Indians, mostly by Europeans, and traded to Indians.

Traits : Whereas a segment defines the location (tip, base, outline, etc.) of a physical area, trait describes attributes of that area. Traits include rivet holes, other drilled holes, cross sectional shapes, tails, serrations, barbs, and other traits. All blades (knife and point) have segment-points, but a beveled point is a trait. All copper artifacts have cross-sectional segments, but the shape of that segment (round, oval, triangular, etc.) is a trait. An objects surface is a segment, but the convexity of that surface is a trait. Traits are refined cultural tags, each with its own taxonomic name.

Treatment Marks : Creation marks left on copper objects involving (a) the coppersmith treatment of copper, such as hammering and annealing, and (b) copper's metallurgical behavior in creation, such as stress marks and fissuring.

Triangulate : Composed of or made up of triangles, to make triangles. The Socketed Triangulate projectile point is one that is made up of many triangles.

Trilateral : Having or involving three sides; harpoons which have one or more barbs on three sides are called trilateral.

Type: Type is the 6th copper taxonomic class and a subclass of genre. Type exhibits exclusive characteristics and is associated with a specific culture.

Typology : The study of systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common. Typology and diagnosis are closely related.

Unfinished Objects; sometimes craftsmen discontinue their work before completion, never to resume their task. These objects, found in sundry stages of completion.

Unilateral: Involving, or affecting only one side; a description of knives with a cutting edge on only one side; a harpoon with one or more barbs all on one side.

Varieties : Variety is the 7th and final copper taxonomic class, a subclass of type. Significant differences in types are classified as varieties.

Waste Fragments : In crafting artifacts waste was sometimes formed. Sheet copper fragments were generated in cutting or chiseling objects from copper plates. Bars were reduced to produce the right sized object, leaving shavings, chips, and other forms of waste copper.

Wedge : A wedge is a piece of material, such as metal or wood, thick at the poll-end and tapered to a thin edge at the other end. It is designed for insertion into a narrow crevice, used for splitting, tightening, securing, or levering. Wedges can taper on one side, with the other left flat or they may taper on both sides.   The most common use of the wedge is used in falling trees and splitting wood. Wedges were also used in primitive mining and stone working. Wedges can double as chisels.

Weld Marks : Lap lines of copper folds that are fused together in cold hammer welds .

Worm Tracks : A recognized oxidation pattern on the surface of copper artifacts; a raised vein pattern on the surface of anciently worked copper running in the general direction of the pounding. Worm tracks do not appear on unpounded copper or on recently worked copper.